Rolling back the last commit
if nobody has pulled your remote repo yet, you can change your branch HEAD and force push it to said remote repo:
git reset --hard HEAD^ git push -f
So in the event that you want to go back to a previous version of a file. First you must identify the version using:
git log $file
Once you know which commit to go to, do:
git checkout $hash $file
git commit $file
User friendly version ids
Creating version ids Use:
However for this to work, you need to have a good tag set and a good tag naming convention.
Main branch names:
- master – The main branch. Source code of HEAD always reflects production-ready status.
- develop or dev – Main dev branch. HEAD always reflects state with the latest development changes for the next release. This can sometimes be called the “integration branch” and used to generate automatic nightly builds.
Also a variety of supporting branches to aid parallel development between team members, ease tracking of features, prepare for production releases and to assist in quickly fixing live production problems. Unlike the main branches, these branches always have a limited life time, since they will be removed eventually. Creating a new branch:
git checkout -b new_branch develop # Creates a branch called "new_branch" from "develop" and switches to it git push -u origin new_branch # Pushes "new_branch" to the remote repo
git branch # List all local branches git branch -a # List local and remote branches
git checkout dev # Switches to branch that will receive the commits... git merge --no-ff "feature_branch" # makes the a single commit (instead of replaying all the commits from the feature branch)
git branch -d branch_name # Only local branches git push origin --delete branch_name # Remote branch git push origin :branch_name # Old format for deleting... prefix with ":"
Clean-up delete branches in remote repo from local repo…
git branch --delete branch git remote prune origin
Tag releases with
git tag -a $tagname -m "$descr"
This creates an annotated tag that has full meta data content and it is favored by Git describe.
git tag $tagname
These are lightweight tag that are associated to a specific commit.
By default are not pushed. They need to be exported with:
git push origin $tagname
git push origin --tags
To pull tags (if there aren’t any)
git fetch --tags
git tag -d $tagname # Local tags git push --delete origin $tagname # Remote tags git push origin :refs/tags/$tagname # Remote tags (OLD VERSION)
Rename a tag:
git tag new old git tag -d old git push origin :refs/tags/old
Setting up GIT
git config --global user.name "user" git config --global user.email "email"
[http] sslVerify = false proxy = http://10.47.142.30:8080/ [user] email = [email protected] name = alex
Using ~/.netrc for persistent authentication
Create a file called
.netrc in your home directory. Make sure you sets permissions
that it is only readable by user.
With Windows, create a file
_netrc in your home directory. You may need to define a %HOME%
environment variable. In Windows 7 you can use:
setx HOME %USERPROFILE%
The contents of
_netrc) are as follows:
|machine $system | login $user | password $pwd |machine $system | login $user | password $pwd
Creating new repositories
mkdir ~/hello-world cd ~/hello-world git init # Creates an empty repository in ~/hello-world touch file git add file git commit -m 'first commit' # Creates a new file and commits locally git remote add origin 'https://$user:[email protected]/$user/hello-world.git # Creates a remote name for push/pull git push origin master # Send commits to remote
Creating a bare repo:
mkdir templ cd templ echo "Initial commit" > README.md git add README.md git commit -m"Initial commit" git clone --bare .
unzip wordpress-2.3.zip cd wordpress # Note, unzip creates this directory... git init git add . git commit -m 'Import wordpress 2.3' git tag v2.3 git branch upstream # Create the upstream branch used to track new vendor releases
When a new release comes out:
cd wordpress git checkout upstream rm -r * # Delete all files in the main directory but doesn't touch dot files (like .git) (cd .. && unzip wordpress-2.3.1.zip) git add . git commit -a -m 'Import wordpress 2.3.1' git tag v2.3.1 git checkout master git merge upstream
A variation of vendor branches is to sync with an upstream fork in github. Read this guide on how to do that: Syncing a fork on github
GIT through patches
Creating a patch:
... prepare a new branch to keep work separate ... git checkout -b mybranch ... do work ... git commit -a .. create the patch from branch "master"... git format-patch master --stdout > file.patch
To apply patch..
... show what the patch file will do ... git apply --stat file.patch .. displays issues the patch might cause... git apply --check file.patch .. apply with am (so you can sign-off) git am --signoff < file.patch
git fsck git gc --prune=now # Clean-up git remote prune origin # Clean-up stale references to deleted remote objects
Add submodules to a project:
git submodule add $repo_url $dir
Clone a project with submodules:
git clone $repo_url cd $repo git submodule init git submodule update
Or in a single command (Git >1.6.5):
git clone --recursive $repo_url
For already cloned (Git >1.6.5):
git clone $repo_url cd $repo git submodule update --init --recursive
To keep a submodule up-to-date:
git pull git submodule update
git submodule deinit $submodule git rm $submodule # No trailing slash!